In recent months, two federal courts have dismissed lawsuits alleging that branded drug manufacturers’ discounted subsidies—coverage of co-payments—for branded drugs violate federal racketeering and commercial bribery laws. The two cases are among a number of similar pending suits, largely coordinated by the healthcare consumer advocacy group Community Catalyst, which concern approximately 20 different branded drugs. Both cases are significant victories for branded drug manufacturers, who face claims that they have defrauded health plans by offering discounted subsidies directly to consumers—nudging those consumers away from cheaper, generic options preferred by the health plans—in order to preserve market share for branded drugs.
The first action, brought by union health plans against the manufacturer Merck & Co. in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey, was dismissed on April 29, 2013. Judge Michael A. Schipp dismissed the action on grounds that the health plans lacked standing—that the health plans failed to allege that Merck’s discounted subsidies caused the health plans’ members to be prescribed or to purchase drugs that they would not have been prescribed or have purchased otherwise.
A second action against the manufacturer Bristol-Myers Squibb, also brought by union health plans under similar legal theories, was dismissed on substantive grounds by Judge J. Paul Oetken of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on June 6, 2013.
As Judge Oetken summarized the crux of the dispute between health plans and branded drug manufacturers: “Insurers are keen to control drug costs, while manufacturers are determined to maintain market share while competing with generics and therapeutic alternatives. In recent years, manufacturers have launched programs through which they offer to cover the cost of co-payment obligations for their branded drugs. Insurers, which create tiered co-pay obligations to encourage plan members to select cheaper drugs, oppose these programs and argue that they increase overall drug costs.”
In other words, health plans use tiered co-payment plans to incentivize consumers to purchase less expensive, generic equivalents of branded drugs. And, against these payment arrangements, branded drug manufacturers endeavor to preserve their market share by countering plan incentives with discounted subsidies.
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